DermNet NZ

Facts about the skin from DermNet New Zealand Trust. Topic index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Acne vulgaris

Most people with spots have a medical condition called acne vulgaris. Vulgaris is the medical term for "common". It is given this name to distinguish it from less common variants of acne (see all the acne types).

You may prefer to call acne "pimples", "spots" or "zits".

Who gets acne vulgaris?

Nearly all of us have acne at some time or another. It mainly affects adolescents (and can start as young as 8 years old), but acne may persist, begin or become more severe in adulthood.

Find out more about the causes of acne...

What are the clinical features of acne vulgaris?

Acne most often affects the face, but it may spread to involve the neck, chest and back, and sometimes even more extensively over the body.

Individual lesions are centred on the pilosebaceous unit, ie the hair follicle and its associated oil gland. Several types of acne spots occur, often at the same time. They may be inflamed papules, pustules and nodules; or non-inflamed comedones and pseudocysts.

Superficial lesions

Deeper lesions

Secondary lesions

Individual acne lesions usually last less than 2 weeks but the deeper papules and nodules may persist for months. Many acne patients also have oily skin (seborrhoea).

Acne vulgaris Acne vulgaris Acne vulgaris
Acne vulgaris

More images of acne ...

Acne grading

Acne may be classified as mild, moderate or severe1. Comedones and inflammatory lesions are usually considered separately.

Mild acne

Moderate acne

Severe acne

Classification of acne
Mild acne vulgaris
Mild acne
Acne vulgaris
Moderate acne
Acne vulgaris
Severe acne

Some dermatologists assess the severity of a patient's acne more precisely by using a grading scale. The inflammatory lesions are compared with a set of standard photographs to determine the grade, which may be 1 (very mild) to 12 (exceptionally severe) for example2,3.

In clinical trials evaluating acne treatment, the numbers of uninflamed and inflamed lesions are carefully counted at regular intervals. It is remarkably difficult to count consistently.

What is the treatment for acne vulgaris?

Treatment for acne depends on the patient's age and sex, the extent and the severity of the acne, how long it has been present, and response to previous treatments.

Related information


  1. Lehmann HL, Robinson KA, Andrews JS, Holloway V, Goddman SN. Acne therapy: a methodological review. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 47, 231-240 (2002)
  2. Current Measures for the Evaluation of Acne Severity – Medscape Dermatology Expert Review
  3. Tan JK, Jones E, Allen E, Pripotnev S, Raza A, Wolfe B. Evaluation of essential clinical components and features of current acne global grading scales. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Nov;69(5):754-61.

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Author: Reviewed and updated by Dr Amanda Oakley Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand; Vanessa Ngan, Staff Writer; and Clare Morrison, Copy Writer; June 2014.

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