Allergy to acrylates
What are acrylates and where are they found?
Acrylates are individual chemical molecules or monomers that bind together in a process called polymerization to form plastic materials. There are many different types of acrylate. The following table lists just a few of the acrylates and their wide range of applications.
|Methyl methacrylate||Acrylic bone cements used in orthopaedic surgery; acrylic fibres, films, and inks; solvent-based adhesives and binders; medical spray adhesives; dental technology|
|2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)||UV inks; adhesives; lacquers; dental materials; artificial nails; coating for scratch-resistant glass; paint resins; binders for textiles and paper|
|Ethyl acrylate||Acrylic resin used in paint formulations, industrial coatings and latexes; acrylic rubber and plastics; denture materials; floor polishes, sealants; shoe polishes; adhesives; textiles and paper coatings|
|Ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate||Plastic bottles for soft drinks; dental materials; artificial nails; printing inks; automobile antifreeze and engine-cooling liquids|
Acrylates were named Contact Allergen of the Year 2012 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. According to the selectors “we chose them because acrylates are everywhere in the environment”.
Acrylates in their monomer states are very strong irritants and allergens. The monomers usually come in the form of powders and liquids and when combined in the process of polymerization make a pliable mixture that can be formed into any shape and then hardened. The polymerized states of acrylates are relatively inert (non-reactive). Polymerised acrylates are usually non-irritant and non-allergenic. It is mainly the liquid, powder or paste that should be avoided.
What are the reactions to acrylate allergy?
In individuals that are allergic to one or more specific acrylates, direct contact with acrylate monomers produces classic allergic contact dermatitis. The dermatitis is usually confined to the area of contact and may cause itching, burning, scaling, hives, and blistering. Usually the fingers and the hands are the areas most affected from handling the acrylate monomer. In some cases eczema may occur away from the site of contact as the result of transportation of monomer residues by the hands to other parts of the body such as the face (e.g. acrylic nails causing rashes on the eyelids, face or neck). Powdered polymer particles can also contain the monomer. The particles may become airborne and cause symptoms such as rhinoconjunctivitis (hay fever), facial swelling and asthma.
Who is at risk of acrylate allergy?
Anyone can develop an allergy to acrylates but the following are at greater risk.
- Dentist/dental technicians
- Fibreglass workers
- Beauticians, especially those specializing in sculptured nails
- Women who get manicured/sculptured artificial nails
Am I allergic to acrylates?
Acrylate allergy is diagnosed by performing special allergy tests, i.e. patch tests. Methyl methacrylate and ethyl acrylate are now part of the North American Standard Series in the baseline series of patch test allergens and have identified many cases of acrylate allergy. Patch test concentration for methyl methacrylate is 2% in petrolatum and for ethyl acrylate 0.1% in petrolatum.
It is believed that patch testing with methyl methacrylate, 2-hydrorxymethyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, ethylene dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol diacrylate, and ethyl cyanoacrylate will identify most acrylate allergies.
Acrylate monomers should not be deliberately applied to the skin 'as is' for patch testing, as this risks sensitising the individual, i.e., causing a new allergy.
Treatment of acrylate allergy
What should I do to avoid acrylate allergy?
Patients with acrylate allergy, and indeed all those handling acrylate monomers, should avoid direct skin contact with them. Exposure can be minimized by wearing gloves and other protective gear. Methylmethacrylate will cross through latex and vinyl gloves within minutes so double gloving is recommended. Nitrile gloves are more protective.
Alert your doctor, pharmacist, dentist, veterinarian, and beautician to the fact that you have an allergy to acrylates.
Your dermatologist may have further specific advice, particularly if you are highly sensitive to acrylates.
Alternative names for acrylates
There are many different types of acrylates. Some of the more common ones are listed below:
- Methyl methacrylate
- Ethyl acrylate
- 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)
- Triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate
- Ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate
- Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA)
- Ethylene dimethacrylate
- Triethylene glycol diacrylate
- Ethyl cyanoacrylate
On DermNet NZ:
- Allergic contact dermatitis – emedicine dermatology, the online textbook
- T.R.U.E. Tests: this site provides a wide range of information on contact dermatitis and contact allergy testing
- Allergy New Zealand
- Occupational Dermatology Research and Education Centre, Australia
See the DermNet NZ bookstore