|Common name:||Apple Mint, Curly Mint, Pennyroyal, Peppermint, Pineapple Mint, Spearmint, Water or Bog Mint, hortela, menta, mentha montana, menthe, nane.|
|Botanical name:||Mentha spp.: Mentha aquatica, M. piperita, M. pulegium, M. spicata, M. suaveolens.|
|Family:||The Labiatae (Lamiaceae) are mostly herbs or shrubs comprising about 200 genera and 3,200 species. The family is classified in eight groups based on highly technical characters. Most of the economically important species are used for their essential oils and bitter principles. Lavender, pachouli, rosemary, sage, spearmint, peppermint, basil, thyme, marjoram, savory, oregano, pennyroyal, catnip, bee balm, horehound, yerba buena, hyssop and others are important as herbs or spices or in perfumery, medicine or other minor applications.|
|Origin:||The 25 to 30 species of Mentha are native or naturalized to north temperate regions, Australia and South Africa. They may have originated from the Mediterranean.|
|Description:||Mints are branching herbs or shrubs. Many are perennials with leafy runners, stolons or underground rootstocks. Almost all have essential oils and half a dozen species are cultivated. The leaves are opposite or whorled, and are simple or occasionally pinnately compound; stipules are absent. The flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic. The fruit consists of four 1-seeded nutlets that rarely may be fleshy and drupaceous.|
|Uses:||Peppermint oil has long been an extremely popular flavoring agent in products ranging from chewing gum to after-dinner mints. Medicinally, it is mainly used to aid the various processes of digestion although, in 1990, the United States Food and Drug Administration declared peppermint oil to be ineffective as a digestive aid and banned its use as a nonprescription drug for this purpose. The active constituents are found in the essential oil, mainly menthol and carvone.|
|Allergens:||Menthol and L-carvone appear to be the main allergens. Mint also contains 1,8-cineole, acetaldehyde, acetic-acid, alpha-amorphene, alpha-cadinene, alpha-carotene, alpha-copaene, alpha-gurjunene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, alpha-terpineol, alpha-thujone, alpha-tocopherol, aluminum, amyl-alcohol, amyl-valerate, anethole, azulene, benzoic-acid, beta-betulenol, beta-carotene , beta-caryophyllene, beta-copaene, beta-ionone, beta-pinene, beta-thujone, beta-ylangene , betaine, bicycloelemene, bisabolene, cadinene, calcium, camphene, carvacrol, carveol, carveol-acetate, carvone, caryophyllene-oxide, cedrene, cedrol, choline, chromium, cineole, cinerol, cinnamic-acid-methyl-ester, cis-piperitol, cis-roseoxide, cis-sabinol, citronellol, cryptone, flavons hymenoxin, iron, isoamyl-phenylacetate, isobutyric-acid, isomenthol, isomenthol-acetate, isomenthone, isomenthyl-acetate, isopulegol-acetate, isorhoifolin, isovaleraldehyde, isovaleric-acid, isovaleric-acid-n-octyl-ester, jasmone, lavandulol, ledol , limonene, linalool, luteolin, menthol, menthone, menthoside, menthyl-acetate, menthyl-isovalerate, menthyl-valerate, myrcene, myrtenol, neoisomenthol-acetate, neomenthol, neomenthone, neomenthyl-acetate, nerolidol, nevadensin, octan-3-ol, p-cymene, p-cymol, pectin, pent-cis-2-en-1-ol, perillyl-alcohol, phellandrene, phenylethanols, phenyl-propyl-pyridines, phosphorus, pinene, piperitenone, piperitone, piperitone-oxide, pulegone, pyridine, rosmarinic-acid, sabinene, sabinene-acetate, sabinene-hydrate, salvigenin, sideritoflavone, silicon, terpinolene, thymol, trans-piperitol, trans-roseoxide, vanillin, viridiflorol, xanthomicrol|
Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis have both been reported. Dermatitis in two bartenders was attributed to contact with Mentha citrata (Bergamot mint).
Menthol, the chief constituent of Oil of Peppermint (Mentha piperita), is irritant in high concentration especially if evaporation from the skin is prevented.
Perfumes and colognes containing menthol and/or Oil of Peppermint can produce dermatitis in some individuals.
Dermatitis has been reported in workers in candy factories whilst adding peppermint to lollies.
A finisher of chewing gum with contact dermatitis had positive patch test reactions to diluted spearment (Mentha spicata) flavouring.
The leaf of Mentha longifolia is said to be irritant to the skin.
Ingestion of Mentha satureioides (Penny royal mint) was suspected as a cause of hepatic photosensitisation in sheep. Essential oils from these plants are noted in many reviews of cosmetic dermatitis as allergenic.
|Patch test:||Leaf as is, peppermint oil 2%, Menthol and L-carvone.|
- Nair B. Final report on the safety assessment of Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf, and Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Water. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 3:61-73.
- Bonamonte D, Mundo L, Daddabbo M, Foti C. Allergic contact dermatitis from Mentha spicata (spearmint). Contact Dermatitis. 2001 Nov;45(5):298.
- Fleming CJ, Forsyth A. D5 patch test reactions to menthol and peppermint. Contact Dermatitis. 1998 Jun;38(6):337.
- Wilkinson SM, Beck MH. Allergic contact dermatitis from menthol in peppermint. Contact Dermatitis. 1994 Jan;30(1):42-3.
- Karlberg AT, Shao LP, Nilsson U, Gafvert E, Nilsson JL. Hydroperoxides in oxidized d-limonene identified as potent contact allergens. Arch Dermatol Res. 1994;286(2):97-103.
- Shin TY. Inhibition of immunologic and nonimmunologic stimulation-mediated anaphylactic reactions by the aqueous extract of Mentha arvensis. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2003 May;25(2):273-83.
- Benito M, Jorro G, Morales C, Pelaez A, Fernandez A. Labiatae allergy: systemic reactions due to ingestion of oregano and thyme. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1996 May;76(5):416-8.
- Inoue T, Sugimoto Y, Masuda H, Kamei C. Effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) extracts on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jan;24(1):92-5.
- Moneret-Vautrin DA, Morisset M, Lemerdy P, Croizier A, Kanny G. Food allergy and IgE sensitization caused by spices: CICBAA data (based on 589 cases of food allergy). Allerg Immunol (Paris). 2002 Apr;34(4):135-40.
- Hausen BM. [Toothpaste allergy] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1984 Feb 24;109(8):300-2. [Article in German]
- Spencer LV, Fowler JF Jr. ‘Thin mint’ cookie dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 1988 Mar;18(3):185-6.
- Sugarman MM. Contact allergy due to mint chewing gum. J Oral Surg (Chic). 1950 Sep;3(9):1145-7.
- Holmes G, Freeman S. Cheilitis caused by contact urticaria to mint flavoured toothpaste. Australas J Dermatol. 2001 Feb;42(1):43-5.
- Francalanci S, Sertoli A, Giorgini S, Pigatto P, Santucci B, Valsecchi R. Multicentre study of allergic contact cheilitis from toothpastes. Contact Dermatitis. 2000 Oct;43(4):216-22.
- Lovell CR.1993, Plants and the Skin, Blackwell, Oxford.
- Mitchell JC, Rook A, 1979, Botanical Dermatology, Plants and Plant products injurious to the skin, Greengrass, Vancouver.
- Botanical Dermatology Database. http://www.botanical-dermatology-database.info/