DermNet NZ

Facts about the skin from DermNet New Zealand Trust. Topic index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


The information and material contained in this website is provided free of charge for general information purposes only and is applicable for New Zealand.

The information represents the current view of the individual authors and does not necessarily represent the view of the DermNet New Zealand Trust, the owner of DermNet NZ; or its sponsors and other contributing institutions; nor does inclusion on the site of advertisements for specific products or manufacturers indicate endorsement by DermNet NZ, contributing institutions or authors.

While every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that the information provided in this website is current and accurate, the trustees of DermNet NZ and authors and website administrators of DermNet NZ will assume no responsibility for the accuracy and correctness of the information on this site or for any consequences of relying on it.

The information provided herein is not intended to represent medical advice to any person on any specific matter and should not substitute any advice or treatment from a medical practitioner. You must consult your physician or a specialist dermatologist in the first instance. Individuals or users who place reliance on the information contained in this site do so entirely at their own risk and no action or claim can be brought against the authors, website administrators or the DermNet New Zealand Trust for any consequences arising out of such reliance.

External links

Certain links on this site may take you to other websites that are neither owned nor controlled by DermNet NZ.

DermNet NZ does not monitor or endorse any of the information found at these external sites. The links are provided merely as a convenience to users. DermNet NZ assumes no responsibility for the information of content available on any other website accessible by these links, nor does DermNet NZ endorse as a matter of principle the material provided on such sites. The inclusion of links on this website does not necessarily imply any association with the organisations or administrators or authors responsible for those sites.


The information and material available on this website is the copyright of DermNet NZ. Reproduction of the content of this site, in part or in whole, will only be permitted with the written permission of DermNet NZ.

The copyright for DermNet NZ advertisements and sponsors' logos lies with their respective owners.

Terms of use of DermNet NZ pages

The use of DermNet NZ's topic pages for the purpose of education is encouraged. Single copies of individual pages can be printed for individual use provided they retain the header indicating the source of the information (i.e., DermNet NZ or www.dermnetnz.org).

Reproduction of our information or images on a publicly accessible website is rarely permitted; link to www.dermnetnz.org instead. If you do wish to copy our materials for a website, please contact the website administrator; consent will be granted on a case-by-case basis.

Contact the website administrator if you wish to use DermNet NZ text and/or images in Powerpoint presentations, student projects, textbooks, journals, brochures, password-protected intranet pages, on DVD or other media. You must retain the watermark and acknowledge the source (DermNet NZ. Published online at: http://www.dermnetnz.org).

A charge of up to NZ$100 +GST per image applies for commercial use of DermNet NZ images, for low-resolution copies without watermark, and for original print-quality images. The larger online images are usually watermarked dermnetnz.info and/or attributed to a contributor. To use images without watermark, you will be required to download, complete and return a copyright form as Word document or PDF file.

The images available for licensed use by external agencies are listed on our image catalogue. Other clinical dermatological images that are not listed may also be available on application.

You are welcome to link to our pages but please do not link to specific image URLs as they should be viewed in context. Linked files must not be framed by your site.

DermNet NZ does not provide an online consultation service.
If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice.