Author: Dr Moushumi Das, Medical Registrar, Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand; Chief Editor: A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, February 2016.
Benign lymphoplasmacytic plaque was first described in 2009, with few reported cases. It is defined by chronic skin lesions, either solitary or in clusters, that have characteristic dense lymphocytic and polyclonal plasma cell infiltrates on biopsy.
Benign lymphoplasmacytic plaque has also been called cutaneous lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, pretibial lymphoplasmacytic plaque and primary cutaneous plasmacytosis.
Benign lymphoplasmacytic plaque has mostly been reported to affect female children between the ages of 7 and 15. Isolated cases have been described in adult males over the age of 60. It seems to predominantly affect people of Caucasian descent, although cases have also been described in Japanese, African and South Asian (Indian) children.
The cause of benign lymphoplasmacytic plaque is unknown. Preceding trauma to the affected area has been noted in a few cases, but no direct correlation has been confirmed.
Benign lymphoplasmacytic plaque presents as a solitary chronic, persistent and asymptomatic skin lesion that is resistant to topical and systemic treatment. Clusters of similar lesions may occur.
The diagnosis of benign lymphoplasmacytic plaque is made by dermatopathology and clinicopathologic correlation. The defining, compulsory histological findings are:
Other tests should be performed to rule out infections, specifically atypical mycobacteria, leishmaniasis, borreliosis, syphilis and fungal infections. The plasma cells must be tested for clonality to exclude the possibility of a lymphoproliferative disorder.
Benign lymphoplasmacytic plaque can be removed by surgical excision. Topical steroids and systemic steroids, intralesional steroid injection, partial removal by shave excision, and oral antibiotics have not proved successful.
It is uncertain how benign lymphoplasmacytic plaque progresses long term.
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