Side effects and risks of the specific calcineurin inhibitor are described in the individual topics.
As a class of drug, the main concern is the effect of calcineurin on kidney function. Suspected reasons for nephrotoxicity include:
Increased endothelin-1, a vascoconstrictor
Decreased nitric acid, a vasodilator
Increased transforming growth factor beta 1, a cause of interstitial fibrosis.
The risk of nephrotoxicity is reduced by:
Keeping the dose of calcineurin inhibitor as low as possible
Adding or replacing it with another immune suppressive medication with different side effects and risks.
New Zealand approved datasheets are the official source of information for these prescription medicines, including approved uses and risk information. Check the individual New Zealand datasheet on the Medsafe website.