Female genital cosmetic surgery

Author: Estella M Janz-Robinson, MChD BAppSc (MedSc), Unaccredited Dermatology Trainee, Department of Dermatology, Canberra Hospital, and Research Registrar, Woden Dermatology, Canberra, ACT, Australia. DermNet New Zealand Editor in Chief: Adjunct A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Hamilton, New Zealand. July 2017. Copy Editor: Gus Mitchell.

What is female genital cosmetic surgery?

Female genital cosmetic surgery incorporates a range of procedures performed on the female genitalia to alter its aesthetic appearance and/or function.  The procedures are usually classified by the anatomical structure undergoing change. Terminology is non-standardised.

Vulvoplasty refers to augmentation or more frequently, reduction of the external female genitalia, and may include:

Vaginoplasty refers to alteration of the internal female genitalia, and may include:

It should be noted that many of these techniques vary considerably between practitioners due to lack of evidence-based standardised procedures.

Who has female genital cosmetic surgery?

The incidence of vulvoplasty has increased dramatically over the last two decades, notably in high-income Western countries.  The Australian Government’s 2014 Vulvoplasty Review reported a 105% increase in Medicare claims for vulvoplasty and labiaplasty from 2008 to 2013.  Similar statistics have been reported in the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

A large population-based study from 2001–2013 in New South Wales, Australia, revealed the following facts about women undergoing vulvoplasty:

Who performs female genital cosmetic surgery?

Female genital cosmetic surgery may be performed by anyone with a medical degree as no formal training is required.  However, it is most commonly performed by:

In Australia, approximately half of all vulvoplasty surgical procedures are performed by gynaecologists and one third by plastic surgeons.

What are the indications for female genital cosmetic surgery?

Medically indicated female genital cosmetic procedures (and those covered by Medicare in Australia) include:

Non-medically indicated female genital cosmetic surgery may be pursued for a diverse range of reasons, which can broadly be divided into three categories:

  1. Aesthetic reasons — to reduce dissatisfaction associated with actual or perceived abnormality of genital anatomy
  2. Psychological reasons — to address embarrassment, poor self-esteem, anxiety, inhibition in relationships, or to be more “normal”
  3. Functional reasons — to reduce pain/interference with sexual intercourse, discomfort when exercising or wearing tight clothing, chronic infections associated with personal hygiene.  Note that certain functional reasons may also be medically indicated.

Until quality peer-reviewed evidence of efficacy and risk profiles are available, numerous professional bodies including the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists have advised against non-medically indicated female genital cosmetic surgery to avoid unnecessary harm, including laser vaginal rejuvenation, revirgination and G-spot amplification. In particular, they recommend that these procedures should not be performed in children.

What are the complications of female genital cosmetic surgery?

Few studies have assessed the long-term satisfaction, safety, and complication rates for non-medically indicated female genital cosmetic surgery procedures.

Potential risks and complications include:

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