Author: Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2008.
Food allergy is an immunological reaction to a food protein that is either immediate (occuring seconds to minutes after eating or touching the food item) or delayed (occurring hours or days later). Allergic reactions may occur when the affected person eats or touches a tiny amount of the responsible protein.
Food allergy is most common in young babies (4%), who often outgrow their allergies. About 2% of adults also suffer from allergy to one or more foods. The tendency to food allergy runs in families.
Skin conditions due to food allergy include:
Food allergy may result in the following symptoms.
About 90% of systemic allergic reactions are due to the following food items:
There are numerous other foods and plants that occasionally cause allergy. Some are listed here.
Food allergy is diagnosed by taking a careful history of the symptoms and their relationship to food, supported by examination findings and the results of tests. Unfortunately, neither history nor tests are entirely reliable in everyone.
The main tests for food allergy are:
Not all reactions to food are allergic in origin. Intolerance can cause similar symptoms to allergy, including urticaria and dermatitis. But the reaction often depends on how much is consumed. These reactions are classified as follows.
Skin conditions may also be due to deficiencies in the diet, sometimes because of attempts to reduce exposure to known or presumed allergens.
The mainstay of management is to identify which foods are responsible for reactions, and then to avoid them. Prescribed treatments depend on symptoms, and may include:
It is not known how to prevent all food allergy. Recommendations regarding introduction of peanuts to the food of infants has recently changed.
Scott H. Sicherer, Hugh A. Sampson, Lawrence F. Eichenfield, Daniel Rotrosen. The Benefits of New Guidelines to Prevent Peanut Allergy. Pediatrics Jun 2017, 139 (6) e20164293; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-4293. Journal.
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