Author: Dr Bob Chan, Dermatology Registrar, Auckland, New Zealand, November 2014.
Mid-dermal elastolysis is a rare, acquired skin condition of elastic tissues. Elastic fibres provide skin tissue with elastic recoil and resilience. In mid-dermal elastolysis, there is a selective loss of elastic fibres in the mid-dermis.
Mid-dermal elastolysis has been reported mostly in Caucasian patients, with a female predominance. The most commonly affected sites are the trunk and upper arms; the face and lower legs are only occasionally affected.
There have been 3 clinical subtypes of mid-dermal elastolysis described.
The exact cause of mid-dermal elastolysis is unknown. It is associated with localised increased activity of elastase, an enzyme involved in elastin breakdown.
Reported associations with mid-dermal elastolysis include:
Biopsy features can be helpful to confirm the diagnosis of mid-dermal elastolysis. Specimens may appear normal with haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E), or may have a discrete inflammatory infiltrate. Band-like or focal loss of elastic fibres can be seen in the mid-dermis with elastic stains.
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