Telangiectasia

Author: A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2014.


What is telangiectasia?

Telangiectasia is a condition in which there are visible small linear red blood vessels (broken capillaries). These are also called telangiectases. Visible small blood vessels that are blue in colour (spider veins) are called venulectasia because venules are involved.

Telangiectasia

What is the differential diagnosis of telangiectasia?

Telangiectases need to be distinguished from other vascular conditions, including blood vessel tumours such as infantile haemangiomas and angiomas that arise in adults; and capillary or venous vascular malformations.

Large red blood vessels are arteries and large blue blood vessels are veins. Arteries may be enlarged due to aneurysm formation. Veins enlarged due to the destruction of their valvular system are known as varicose veins.

Classification of telangiectasia

Inherited conditions

Note that telangiectasia may be noted as a normal feature of facial skin in some families.

Hereditary telangiectasia

Acquired telangiectasia

Telangiectasia due to disease

Telangiectasia may follow a cutaneous injury. For example:

Telangiectasia following injury

Some tumours are characterised by telangiectasia, such as:

Telangiectasia in skin tumours

Certain medications may give rise to telangiectasia.

Telangiectasia related to topical steroid use

What is the treatment of telangiectasia?

Telangiectases are generally harmless. Treatment may be sought because of bleeding or unsightly appearance. Facial red vein treatment methods include:

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